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Japan: A Nation of Lost Identity (My Year of Meats Extra Credit)

In order to survive in this planet of ever-growing changes, shifts and changes are often made, leading to the discarding of past values and tradition. In Ruth Ozeki’s novel, My Year of Meats, Ozeki indicates a shift in Japan as a country, as a result of influences in capitalism, consumerism, and overall American Culture. Ozeki makes it increasingly evident that Japan is losing its identity amongst nations as Japan seeks to conform with societies which have been deemed successful and prosperous. Japan is shown to seek adaptations of cultural lifestyles with a change to a diet richer in meats and shift towards desires of the “American Dream.”


Modernization of Japan into a Meat Culture

Clear resentment is presented towards past Japan through Akiko’s husband, John, who displays a growing loss of interest in his wife due to her small figure and infertility, which he views to be due to a meat-deficient diet. The remedy in such situation is concluded to be a change to a more American lifestyle, one that incorporates large consumption of meat. In such way, Ozeki utilizes meat as a linkage to American consumerism and culture, displaying shifting tides in Japan, as Japan becomes further accustomed to meat consumption through the cooking show, My American Wife, that Jane (the Protagonist) helps to produce. Ozeki essentially hints to the failure of infrastructure in Japan as a whole, as Japanese culture has caused its people to pale in comparison to American people.


Large Portions of Meat (Symbolizing American Culture & Consumerism)

The Protagonist Jane can be seen as the bridge between Japan and the America, as she is of Japanese and Caucasian decent. In presenting this duality, Ozeki is able to further the idea of American health and stature through both the successes of Jane with her TV show and Jane’s figure itself. John who comes into contact with Jane, in one passage, commends Jane on her height and intelligence, which he attributes to her Caucasian side. This sort of American favoritism that Ozeki incorporates into her novel, creates a sense of a dying Japanese culture that people seek to abandon for something of greater nourishment and prosperity. In My Year of Meats, this nourishment comes in the form of the meat that is cooked on the show and the meat that is sold to the Japanese people through BEEF-EX. The early Meiji Era values of 19th century Japan, values that include buddhist ideals of being frugal, low meat consumption, and overall moderation, are discarded and replaced with American values of excessiveness and high consumerism (in particular with that of meat). This new 20th century Japan, illustrates Japanese high regard toward a state of modernity, which is thought to be only possible through the mimicry of “American culture.”


Cover of My Year of Meats Novel (displays Japanese Chopsticks which pick up Beef Cow)

My Year of Meats is a novel in which Japanese progression towards modernity in the 19th and 20th century is displayed through Japanese adaptations toward the American lifestyle. Ozeki displays such shift through the symbol of meat which becomes an increasingly common part of the Japanese peoples’ lives. American consumerism is placed at the utmost highest pedestal, as it emanates and produces prosperity and health which is shown through the juxtaposition of American and Japanese women.


My year of meat (Extra Credit)



Soyoung Son
Japanese 70

         Jane Takagi-Little is a Japanese American journalist and she works for a Japanese production company. She produces the program of called “My American Wife.”, this is about meat (beef), they show how to cook beef, what the best meat is, and show her life as American wife, how she cook meat every week. There are story of Jane, Suzie and Akiko. Jane’s story is the life of Akiko Ueno, she is manga artist and married with a man who work for BEEF-EX.

         This book’s story is about meat, actually culture of meat is not for Asian food, it came from Western and now it is popular and had been settled as our meal. Almost every one love meat and always find it at table and also rate of sold a meat has been growing rapidly. In My American Wife program show how to cook meat in the best way, and where we can find the best meat. They try to find the place where they can find the best meat, but they found the company which made a meat in stranger way rather than the best meat. There are actually lots of menu that they will cook but end up, they decided to cook a beef, because this American broadcast company have supporter Japanese company as well and this American company make a program for showing Japanese wife the best way to cook beef and that is actual purpose to sell a meat. The company which sold a meat have a huge farm, they want to raise a cow with very easy way, they shot inject of Hormone and other variety prevent inject to cow when cows are born, and also during they are growing, the company give them food mixed some drugs and give some shot as injection. It probably looks that cows are very healthy and they are growing up in very well circumstance, but it is not like that, it is very mess. The company even haven’t cleaned cow’s excreta, the farm is too small cow to grow, People who work there looks very bored to work as machine.  And if kids eat this meat, then they have problem of growing well. I think, most people have ambition and it brings these terrible result, they just need to sell it and earn money with any reason and ways. Ruth Ozeki wants to tell veil of food story, and we have to know there is lots of problem in food. Asian food culture is actually not meat long time ago but now it is popular and every Asian know it as healthy food, but there are lots of junk food also made with meat, such as Hamburger, sausage  and spam, we might know it is very unhealthy food, but we can’t stop eating those food. That means meat has already settled in our life. So we probably want to find a way to eat healthy and great meat as well and even if we eat junk food, we should try to eat less.

















The Journey of Jane and Akiko in My Year of Meats

My Year of Meats is a novel that is about a Japanese-American woman, Jane Takagi-Little, who is a documentary filmmaker. She gets a job offer at two in the morning to produce a Japanese cooking show called My American Wife, sponsored by BEEF-EX, a national lobby organization that represents all kind of meats. In the documentary show, My American Wife, Jane makes a pitch to document that meat is the protagonist of the show and film housewives who can cook with meat. To proceed with the show, Jane and the production crew go on a journey to find the perfect and good-looking American housewives that have recipes, containing meat. Through her journey in the novel, Jane learns a lot about meat. She also finds about her true self, instead of doing what others want her to do.

As Jane travels for the documentary show, she encounters a housewife, Suzie Flowers. In the prologue of My Year of Meats, Jane translates for Mr. Oda, the director of the documentary show, to Suzie on how to act. During the filming, Jane films Suzie making Coca Cola Roast for her family and her everyday lifestyle as a housewife. However, during one of the filming, her husband, Fred Flowers, confesses to Suzie that he is having an affair, shocking everybody on the set. Despite the shocking news, Mr. Oda tells Jane that they will edit and end it with the scene where Fred and Suzie were celebrating on Valentine’s Day. When Jane hears about making the ending as if Suzie and Fred were living happily ever after, she feels that there is no truth within the documentary, which the documentary show ends up lying to the audience. Mr. Oda’s idea of editing to make a happy ending illustrates the idea of participatory documentary filmmaking, which shows the use of editing to create a story that is not true.

Meanwhile, Akiko Ueno is a Japanese housewife that cooks with meat.  She watches My American Wife, and follows the same recipes on the show, like Suzie’s Coca Cola Roast. Her husband, Joichi Ueno, works as the Tokyo PR representative for BEEF-EX. Because of her husband, Akiko is forced to watch the show and fill out questionnaires, in regards to the format of the show and how the meat is presented well. When Akiko and Joichi finish dinner, Akiko throws up in the bathroom, without Joichi knowing. As Akiko watches Jane’s documentary show, My American Wife, she not only learns about meat recipes but there is also a slow shift to her life.

            During Jane’s travel, she is truly inspired by Sei Shonagen’s “The Pillow Book,” as she refers to the book and how Shonagen influences her. She also learns more about meat and where it originated. However, throughout her entire journey, Jane mentions about her standing in being Japanese American and being able to embrace her identity, despite all the racial discriminations she receives from other people. My Year of Meats shifts around between the two women, Akiko and Jane, and how throughout their journey in watching and filming, My American Wife, it changes their perspectives towards life. 

Chinese Cultural Forms in The Gourmet Club: Creating Curiosity and Pleasure From Unfamiliarity

By integrating Chinese cultural forms in the description of the exotic feeling that the Chinese cuisine gives in the story, Tanizaki Junichirō seemingly make the image of Chinese cultural images more vivid, but indeed not explaining the Chinese cultural images. This way, the sense of exoticism is amplified, and the hazy aesthetics of exoticism is created.

When Count G searches for the source of the good smell he detected on the street, “a whiff of shao-hsing rice wine reached his nostrils”. By specifically calling out shao-hsing rice wine instead of just some kind of Chinese rice wine, Tanizaki Junichiro creates the beauty of exoticism: it makes readers imagine how the wine smells like, and what makes it so interesting to Count G. Without further describing or introducing shao-hsing rice wine, a mysterious aesthetics is created. The shao-hsing rice wine is later mentioned again when Count G. was exploring inside of the CheChiang Hall, when he saw “one of the diners stood up and raised a cup of shao-hsing rice wine”. The repeated mention of shao-hsing rice wine intensifies its existence, drawing attention to it. However, Junichiro did not spend any words explaining the true identity of this mysterious supposedly delicious wine, and therefore creating a mysteriousness.

Similar methods are found throughout the passage. “Scenic beauty on the banks of Western Lake, framed in the poetry of Po Lo-t’ien and Su Tung-p’o” references to classical Chinese poets by their names without further explaining who they are or what their master works are. “Pork belly cooked in soy a la Tung-p’o” excites readers’ imagination on what “a la Tung-p’o” could possibly be, as it seems to be some kind of Chinese cooking sauce. “Tea from cups made in Ching-te-chen” reminds readers of some distinct mysterious Chinese town that makes fine china cups without visually giving readers an image to think about. All these mentions of classical Chinese cultural forms all together create a veil between readers and the Chinese culture, and therefore amplifying the sense of exoticism, creating a beauty of unfamiliarity .

Different from all other mentions of Chinese cultural forms, the mention of “Bok Choi” takes the aesthetics to another level. At first, the cabbages are falsely described as a woman’s fingers, then after erotic description of A.’s experience, the “fingers” are revealed to be Chinese cabbages. It’s not until even later that the traditional Chinese name for Chinese cabbage, “Bok Choi” is used to substitute the mere vocabulary of “Chinese cabbage”. By revealing the identity of Bok Choi gradually, the erotic pleasure of A. is intensified bit by bit, and by the time that the word “Bok Choi” is used, a vivid, eerie yet fantastic image of a normal Chinese cabbage has been established. By giving Bok Choi specifically a vivid image, Tanizaki Junichirō seemingly gives readers an insight of Chinese culture. However, since the actual taste of Bok Choi is still not described in the passage, the pleasure and aesthetics of exoticism is still achieved.

By integrating Chinese cultural forms in the story, Tanizaki Junichirō vaguely gives out Chinese culture images without further explanation.  This creates a beauty of unfamiliarity and exoticism, and thus evokes readers’ excitement and erotic pleasure resulted from the sense of unfamiliarity and exoticism.

Chinese Cultural Forms in “The Gourmet Club”

Throughout “The Gourmet Club”, authentic Chinese food is presented as exotic cuisine that the main character, Count G, cannot resist tasting. To further emphasize the idea of exoticism surrounding the food, classical Chinese cultural forms are displayed throughout the text. These forms play a key role in developing the imagery and aesthetics of “The Gourmet Club”. Specifically, the Chinese cultural forms contribute to a distinctly foreign, yet authentic image in the story.

Readers learn that Count G and his comrades have only had the experience of eating the Japanese version of Chinese food, which is why actual Chinese food is so enticing and different. The author asserts this theme of uniqueness about the cuisine by employing Chinese cultural forms. For example, the text states, “but at the instant they passed, a whiff of shao-hsing rice wine reached his nostrils”(107). Shao-hsing rice wine is exclusive to China. The presence of an item that is difficult to encounter outside of China results in a sense of allurement. Using “shao-sing rice wine” in particular, rather than simply “rice wine” categorizes the wine as something directly from China, and something that is usually not common in Japan. This illustrates the story as possessing images of exoticism.

Another instance in which Chinese cultural forms are utilized to give a sense of foreignness is seen when the gourmet club members are trying to decipher what dish they are eating. One member thinks, “Yes, it definitely tastes like ham-and in particular, Chinese-style ham”(135). The member’s thought indicates that there is an obvious difference between what is considered “normal” ham to him and the “Chinese-style” ham. Describing the food as having a Chinese cooking style or approach lends to a feeling of specialty and unusualness. The feelings of specialty and unusualness relates to the general idea of exoticism.

Lastly, bok choi is a heavily attributed to China and the description of it continues to give a sense of uniqueness in “The Gourmet Club”. The taste-tester of the gourmet club notes, “Moreover, it was a tender sort of bok choi, like a well-boiled giant radish, sweeter and moister than anything he’d had before”(136). The intricate detailing of the texture and taste of bok choi creates a peculiar perspective on the Chinese dish, since the gourmet club member who is eating the vegetable is not very familiar with it. The excitement of consuming a foreign meal for the first time is heightened by the unconventional description. The unconventionality further supports a general feeling of exoticism to the story.

The foreignness and exoticism of the delicacies brings feelings of enticement and curiosity that are clearly displayed in the characters’ attitude and desires to taste the meals. The classical Chinese cultural forms themselves give a sense of authenticity to the food because it makes a connection to China. Tanizaki Jun’ichiro ultimately utilizes Chinese cultural forms to show a story of foreignness and exoticism. The Chinese cultural forms are mainly applied to authentic Chinese food and food becomes the aspect that emphasizes the above ideas.

Kobe Beef and Its Prestige


Kobe beef is known for its marble pattern.

Originally, cattle were not native to Japan. When cattle were introduced in the country later on, they were initially used for the purpose of helping with labor. In addition to working as animal laborers, cattle held a role in some spiritual rituals. This role of the animals in spiritual rituals and the banning of consuming beef in Japan resulted from Buddhist philosophy and beliefs. The attitude towards beef has changed significantly in Japan since its first introduction. Now, the higher grade of beef, known as Kobe beef, has spread through Japan and to other countries due to its origin and quality.

Because of natural geographical barriers, such as mountains, cattle breeds were able to evolve separately amongst each other. Kobe beef comes from Tajima cattle located primarily in Hyogo prefecture (Staley).  The beef is famously known for its marbling. Marbling refers to the intramuscular flat in the beef that gives a “marbled” appearance. Kobe beef is also said to have a different texture, tenderness, and taste than other beef. These characteristics may be attributed to the raising of the cattle while still alive. Japanese cattle ranchers limit the animals’ range and feed it a particular diet of grains. Since the 1940s, the Kobe Beef Marketing and Distribution Promotion Association have overseen the production of Kobe beef. Authentic Kobe beef is now stamped with a seal so consumers now they are purchasing real Kobe beef. Consumers also often pay much more for Kobe beef in contrast to other types of beef.

Kobe beef is now a symbol of Japan. The great lengths taken to produce and distribute Kobe beef are due to the meat exclusively coming from Japan. In present times, Kobe beef has risen as a prestigious delicacy in other countries. The meat has presented itself as an exotic and, therefore enticing, dish outside Japan. It is much harder to come across Kobe beef in places like North America and Europe because it is native to Japan. The exclusivity of this food is a reason for the larger demand. Even though there is larger demand, the amount of authentic Kobe beef available for consumption is much less, making it even more desired. Kobe beef is also ranked so highly that it exceeds the grading of the USDA scale (Staley). Hence, Japanese beef quality is of a higher caliber. Some beef has even been mislabeled outside of Japan as Kobe beef so it can sell.

Despite the original beef consumption bans, the association of wealth and luxury to the food caused for the lifting of those bans. A once barbaric-like practice in Japan has been embraced (Cwiertka). The changing beliefs in Japan about food items for consumption has led to significant differences in what Japanese eat today. The above standard quality of the beef in Japan has also made it into a desirable dish throughout the globe. Overall, beef is now part of Japanese cuisine. Kobe beef, in particular, has now transformed into a world-renowned delicacy that is representative of Japan. 

Extra Credit: Astroboy, Film Review

By: Natalie Jongjaroenlarp

Tezuka’s Astroboy, an animated television series, is about a boy robot created to replace a scientist’s son who passed away. The scientist, Doctor Tenma, through his depression and sorrow over the death of his son, desperately denies that his son is gone. Once Astroboy comes into his life, he tries his best to teach the boy how to live like a regular, human boy. When that fails, however, he sells the robot to a circus without another thought to the boy’s feelings.

This film has grotesque, dark moments that reflect german expressionism. The stereotypes and characteristics of the feeling of claustrophobia, the dark shadows, the mad scientist caricature, and the doppelgänger and split personality effect are prevalent in this film. In the beginning, the frankenstein-like music coupled with the birth of what seems like a monstrosity coming into being help to create the german expressionistic atmosphere. Meanwhile, Doctor Tenma laughs wildly as his creation of Astroboy becomes real, much like a mad scientist. This foreshadows the dark things that will happen to the character of Astroboy later. Also, there are times when Astroboy resembles something of a younger Doctor Tenma. That is why it is so heartbreaking when the scientist sells the boy. It seems like he is selling a part of himself away, as he tries his best to move on after the tragic death of his son. The doppelgänger characteristic of German expressionism comes into play especially during the scene where Doctor Tenma is debating whether or not he should create Astroboy. He has an internal war with himself, as he struggles to come to terms with the recent tragic accident that took the life of his one and only son.

The main point of the film is driven home at the end when Astroboy saves the circus master. He treated the boy with such cruelty, yet he was saved by him in the end. This reveals that everyone should always be treated with absolute kindness because you never know what may happen in the future. As they say, what goes around comes around. This film stars a character that all children love.

The appeal of Astroboy not only comes from the film or tv series, it also comes from the advertising and merchandise. Children everywhere would be thrilled to see candy with Astroboy’s face on it. Sales increased quite a bit once the decision was made to use Astroboy as a strategy. Because children identified with the brand so much and Astroboy was literally everywhere, it made it easy for Japan’s largest candy company to make a lot of money. This same idea was later copied by other manufacturing companies once they realized that the use of popular cartoon characters worked. However, once they began to use the actor’s image, from the tv show, alongside the face of the cartoon, the strategy did not work as well. The problem was that children identified the actor with other characters from other shows.

I Don’t Want Any of This: Food and Relationships in One Million Yen Girl

In the 2008 film, One Million Yen Girl, food is used throughout the movie to represent Suzuko’s willful disconnection with her family as well as most of the rest of society.  The story begins as Suzuko is released from prison.  She retaliated to the inadvertent killing of a cat she took in by throwing away all of her roommate’s belongings.  This earns her a prison sentence, but upon her release Suzuko’s parents decide to make a nice big meal for the family.


[Suzuko’s parents prepare a large dinner for the family, back together after Suzuko’s time in prison. But Suzuko waits, apparently indecisive as to whether she can accept the meal and the support as well as the dependency it represents]

Suzuko quietly refrains from eating, but slowly starts to sip on soup.  She does not seem to be sure whether or not she wants to accept what her family is offering her.  Of course, the meaning of the scene extends to more than the food itself.  Her parents want to provide her with the “nutrition” she needs.  Finally, apparently deciding that she can accept this, she begins to make a hand roll, but her younger brother interrupts.  He yells at her that she shouldn’t have come back.  She explains her plans to leave once she saves up a million yen.  Suzuko then leaves the table, the roll still lying on her plate.


[Suzuko storms off after the confrontation with her brother. Out of the massive amount of food on the table, she has only taken a few sips of soup]

True to her word, Suzuko leaves home after saving up a million yen.  She then travels from town to town, repeating the saving and leaving process and making and abandoning relationships as she does.  Scene after scene shows her eating little or nothing at all as those around her happily devour their meals.  She is choosing not to sustain herself, neither with food nor with relationships, more than is necessary for survival.  Suzuko’s relationship with food in this film reminds me of what food represents in Vibrator.  While Suzuko is not poisoning herself with alcohol or rejecting the food she does take in, she is still refusing the sustenance provided by food, as well as the emotional sustenance those offering the food keep trying to provide.


[Suzuko sits shyly in the corner eating nothing as the others eat, drink, and laugh]

When Suzuko finally finds someone she thinks she can trust, he betrays her badly by borrowing money to date another girl.  She confronts him once she has saved up a million yen, and decides yet again to leave.


[Suzuko asks her lover to explain why he lovers her, upon each answer, she responds “And?” Suzuko cannot accept what he has to offer, neither love nor iced tea.]

We get a sense that she has grown, however.  At the end of the movie we see her buying a donut, a food clearly made for pleasure.  Perhaps this donut represents the ephemeral pleasure she found in her relationship, which was also “sweet” but not “healthy.”  Perhaps, sometimes, the thing that we need to motivate us is not the small, bland, healthy option, but a mouthful of sweet, fattening donut.


[Suzuko enjoys a donut as she sets off to a new destination, it seems that she has learned that it is acceptable to indulge one’s self, at least sometimes.]

Extra Credit: The One-Straw Revolution, a Biographical Genre

by: Natalie Jongjaroenlarp

In Fukuoka’s The One-Straw Revolution, various farming techniques are outlined to describe the trial and error process that Fukuoka went through in order to find what he thinks is the perfect farming method. His approach to farming aligns with nature in its truest form. Instead of attempting to re-make nature, like most modern techniques do, he tries to attack farming by avoiding the use of man-made or unnatural equipment. His exploration of farming has led to revelations that even experts in the agricultural field do not believe. Fukuoka says of the farmers using toxic chemicals, “It is as if a fool were to stomp on and break the tiles of his roof. Then when it starts to rain and the ceiling begins to rot away, he hastily climbs up to mend the damage, rejoicing in the end that he has accomplished a miraculous solution” (Fukuoka, 18). It is silly that these farmers try to fix something that was not in need of repair to begin with. When they get back to square one, they are overjoyed because they think they have accomplished a great feat. The analogies and descriptive writing allow for a clear-cut explanation to the situation.

Along his journey, he has made important, philosophical discoveries while still finding what he is passionate about in life. He realizes that, even when he feels like he has found something that can change the world, he still understands “nothing” (Fukuoka, 8). There is never going to be enough knowledge to understand everything because it is simply impossible for any one person to know things beyond what the human psyche can comprehend. He, therefore, feels comfortable in his own stupidity. In a poetic passage full of description, he relates how he found himself: “Just at that moment a night heron appeared, gave a sharp cry, and flew away into the distance. I could hear the flapping of its wings. In an instant all my doubts and the gloomy mist of my confusion vanished. Everything I had held in firm conviction, everything upon which I had ordinarily relied was swept away with the wind…” In this world there is nothing at all….” I felt that I understood nothing. I could see that all the concepts to which I had been clinging, the very notion of existence itself, were empty fabrications. My spirit became light and clear. I was dancing wildly for joy…I think it could safely be said that from the experience of that morning my life changed completely” (Fukuoka, 8-9). This story is told in a kind of confessional, biographical format, similar to Ozeki’s My Year of Meats, in which Fukuoka describes his spiritual path he took to find the passion he has for farming. This style of writing allows the reader to imagine the emotions and thoughts running through his head in that one moment.

There is a superior, expert-like tone that pervades throughout the piece, especially during the passages that explain the step-by-step process of farming. It gives the readers comfort to know the background of the writer. His credentials add dynamic to the piece because his life is being lived by everyone reading. Suddenly, everyone lives through the successes of his discoveries, philosophical and agricultural. That is why the work means that much more to the public.

Works Cited

Fukuoka, Masanobu. The One-straw Revolution: An Introduction to Natural Farming. Emmaus: Rodale, 1978. Print.

Film:Fast Food Nation “The Fake Food and Desire”

The film Fast Food Nation begins with a company official of fast food company, Don Anderson trying to find an idea that can help him create new item to sell. When he starts the trip however, he starts to be exposed to the hidden stories behind the fast food system. From then on the film introduces several issues relating to the fast food industry from the meat factory where animals are abused and slaughtered to fast food restaurants where disgusting products only get worse. In this stream of production of fast food hamburger, Fast Food Nation points out how people no longer focus on what they are consuming as “food”, but they focus on fulfilling their desires.

The most obvious desire the food connects is the gluttony; the desire to eat. In order to satisfy the desire to eat what is pleasing to the palate, people started to disregard what they are putting in to their own body. In order to make the fast food even more appealing, the fast food company has research team working on chemicals which appeals to appetite. For example, Don Anderson and one of the researchers share conversation about adding a specific type of chemical in order to add the sense of lime for the product which people believe to have lime in it. Even the new item which is introduced in the end, “the hickory smoke big one”, is created with chemicals that people have never heard of. The message is simple the food is not a real “food”.

Interestingly, the film shows different desire, not of American, but of the immigrants from Mexico. The desire of Mexican immigrants is not about eating tasty food, but to be accepted in the American community. The scene that effectively describes this tendency of immigrant is the date of two immigrants; they go to have a dinner at a restaurant filled with Americans, and order Chinese chicken salad. After the supper is over, the boyfriend talks about how delicious the food was when girl friend disagrees; in fact, she claims that the chicken was cold. The reason why two people have opposing opinion about same dish is because their desires are different. The boy friend desires to be fitted in the American society thus he continues to talk about who he would like to get an American brand truck. Deluded by his own the desire, the boy friend purposely blind own eyes to see the truth.  On the other hand, the girl friend didn’t wish to immigrate to America in the first place and does not fully wish to become American. Therefore, only she is able to see the food as consuming nutrition which was not cooked properly.

The film finishes with most realistic ending possible. Although company’s official found out about the corruption within the fast food production, he surrenders himself to the logic of events around him. Similarly, even though both book and film Fast Food Nation pin points out the problems of production system and faults on the food itself, people will continue to buy McDonalds the next day.