Category Archives: Astro Boy

Animations and Food: Dimensional Play

Mixed media systems, due to their reach in different mediums and their power to connect images and food, are the most effective in cultivating a relationship with food. This relationship is the availability to interpret food in more than one way through the different mediums of media. Specifically, animation as a cinematic genre seems to hold more power out of the other components of the mixed media systems due to the ease in creating motion and dynamic change with something that starts static.

The genre of animation, specifically earlier versions of it, had to find a way where drawings could hold their own breath of life. This breath usually translated to numerous pictures of the same scene, with slight changes here and there. This grueling task of drawing every frame for multiple times led to some shortcuts, where the illustration of movement in a scene was actually the character in the same position through different backgrounds. These slight tweaks of action made the drawings live as an end result.

Similar processes were done with food. In many animations and scenes made today, food begins as a 2-D image that is then turned active through the processes of animation. In essence, food becomes 3-D due to this movement. The food that the characters eat becomes real, and the relationship that they have with the food becomes an integral part of the plot. We see the character eating, and it’s not fake food at that point. The food becomes physical and somehow transcends the animation, becoming a consciousness of the viewer.

Another way that food in animation becomes real is through the use of marketing goods through animated characters. In the instance of Astro Boy, we find that when the main character was coupled with selling chocolate candies and goods, the different dimensions between the animation and the chocolate product became the same. In fact, the commercial that was used by the Meiji Seika Company to sell the sweets, at one point in making the commercials, had Astro Boy and the candy in the same frame. These types of commercials are found even today, where companies such as Windows and Nintendo play with these different dimensions and bring them together.

Animations may be seen as the best out of the other genres because it is able to transition from a static place of being to a dynamic state, making the food come alive. In many cases, food in animations comes into the plot as well, where characters may acknowledge the food that they are eating and naming it out loud. Other types of genres seem to stick to one dimension, either static or dynamic, and do not hold the ability to play around with both at once. This becomes an advantage for food to use animations as a medium because of the many forms it can be interpreted: it can be seen as part of the backdrop to the story, or it can be seen as part of the plot. With this dimensional play, food becomes something that both the characters and the viewers can connect to.

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Astro Boy: New system of transmedia connectivity

The introduction of the Astro Boy anime to the Japanese public is directly correlated to the development of new transmedia connectivity and forms of consumption that had never before been witnessed by the country. The Astro Boy anime was in itself a brave new experiment into the new systems of entertainment that could be created with the advent of the television. “Tetsuwan Atomu,” a popular manga written by Osamu Tezuka, shocked the Japanese entertainment world to its very core with its first broadcast in 1963 and became instantly popular. However, this immediate popularity did not equate to instant wealth for its creator Tezuka. Because of the unfamiliarity of anime as a media, “Tezuka sold each episode for less than it cost Mushi Production to make it” (Steinberg 39). What truly may go down as Tezuka genius is that he became the first Japanese producer to copyright his character. With this move, Tezuka was able to capitalize on selling licenses and collecting royalties from marketing the character image of Astro Boy. Tezuka, in effect, created the system of character merchandising as an effective method to fund and profit from in the venture of creating anime.

In 1963, when Astro Boy debuted, a candy company named Meiji Seika was the shows sole sponsor. As early as the first episode, we see the relationship between show and sponsor, as well as Tezuka’s image for character merchandising.

Atomu hugging a soda machine in Professor Ochanomizu lab.

The image above is taken from an early episode of “Tetsuwan Atomu”. It depicts Atomu affectionately hugging a soda machine, presumably owned by the Meiji Seika Company. This image is targeted at the children viewers of the show and would in effect leave a child with a positive impression of this soda and the idea that “since this is the brand Atomu loves, we must love it too!” This system of media targeting lead to great profits for Tezuka and Meiji Seika. However, Tezuka was not constrained to only partner with Meiji Seika, because he owned licensing and copyrights, Tezuka was able to sell the image of Astro Boy to many companies that wished for the same marketing success Meiji Seika was experiencing. Overnight, there were Astro Boy stickers, toys and even a baseball team with the Astro boy image on their jersey.

It is this kind of media connectivity, a mix of entertainment, advertisement, and merchandising which promotes both character and sponsor that lead to anime and character merchandising becoming rooted in Japanese society as a new model for media systems. As Steinberg writes, “The immaterial character connects and augments; the material incarnation provides the ground for this multilayered augmentation and for the physical proliferation that generates the desire for further consumption” (Steinberg 85). Thus Tezuka’s “Tetsuwan Atomu” became much more than Japanese first animated television character. Astro Boy became something to be consumed, and by using his image, companies profited from the public’s desire to consume. People would watch the weekly show and be enthralled by the wonders of animation, and then in their daily lives, they could be constantly reminded of their favorite character though the vast array or products containing Astro Boy’s image. Steinberg sums up the craze that was Astro boy nicely when he writes, “The success of Atomu and its character merchandising practice not only inspired immediate imitators but also ensured that the practice was embedded at the very core of anime as a media mix system” (Steinberg 40).

Dynamic Advertising: Astro Boy and the Candy Industry

In post-war 1960’s Japan children were used to receiving omake, give-aways, with their candy. “Dogs people, fish, and hippopotamuses made out of clay”(51) a child could win almost anything with the purchase of a chocolate. However all these goods were extrinsically or arbitratily related to the candy. Once the prize was won there was no link forged in the child’s mind relating the two, it was merely a bonus. Kabaya chocolates started a collection and reward campaign with books (52). This was a step in the right direction: creating a covetable item that was unique to the candy, but the association of Astro Boy with Meiji Marble Chocolates took candy marketing to a whole new level. The gravitatonal pull of Astro Boy’s character and his distribution through multiple media forms transformed the candy marketing media system from merely a system of arbitrary prizes to an entire product culture.

The first reason the pairing of Astro Boy and Meiji Marble Chocolates resulted in the creation of its own culture is the gravitational pull of Astro Boy’s character. Not only is Astro Boy very appealing visually and audibly, his personality is lively and very wholesome. In the pilot episode “The Birth of Astro Boy” Astro Boy is sold to the circus by his father and made to fight to the death by the ring master. He is used and abused by all the humans he encounters and yet he shows them compassion and caring. He even goes so far as to risk his own life to save the ring master during the collapse of the circus tent. Astro Boy is more than just a chocolate icon, he is a role model for the Japanese youth: teaching them morals with every episode. Astro Boy’s combination of robot abilities, such as flying, and his optimistic outlook make him a very attractive and marketable character.

Astro Boy flying through the opening credits

Another reason Astro Boy led to a product culture was his ability to move gracefully through all types of media. Astro Boy’s power stance seen as he flies through the opening credits is easily translatable to still picture forms without losing life. His fists clenched, his face determined and his legs fueled by flames: the potential energy of Astro Boy can be felt even though it is a still frame. This iconic shot of Astro Boy was distributed on stickers, posters, chocolate boxes, and more. Astro Boy was propelled out of the television into the hands of any candy-consuming child and onto any stickable surface: a constant reminder of the weekly episodes. The chocolates were no longer bought for the omake, the chocolate took on the character of Astro Boy himself, literally by being molded in his image, and figuratively by adopting him as an icon. Buying an Astro Boy chocolate was now synonymous with buying into the whole culture surrounding the product. Astro Boy led to the merging of manufacturing and entertainment industries, creating a more dynamic advertising environment.

 

Astro Boy Dynamic movement

Osamu Tezuka’s “Astro Boy” serves as a new model for media systems in that it was one of the first to pioneer the model successfully. Using different media systems, “Astro Boy” was able to permeate through different sources of public information, leading to it being almost commonplace and dynamic, no matter how it was illustrated.

Astro Boy, created by Tezuka in 1952 in its own manga, was adapted later into an animated series, on January 1, 1963. The process, according to Frederik L. Schodt, included a team of animators that helped him with “limited animation,” where only necessary drawings would be made. The dispersal of Astro Boy became even more successful through the use of product merchandising, which came up from the sponsor Meiji Seika, a confectionary manufacturer. As Astro Boy transitioned from one form to another, one can find a change in his state of being, first being static in the manga, and shifting to being dynamic in the product merchandising. One can say that the product merchandising is a form of a new media system because it was able to relay information to the public through its consumption.

The creation of the animated series may be described as the point where Astro Boy obtained the ability of mobility. This comes through the way it was broadcasted to the general public, and how a lot of the elements that Tezuka used created the illusion of Astro Boy moving through space in the anime. This illusion was based on repeating the same pictures over and over to show dynamic movement. These pictures included things like flying, or fighting.

The dynamic movement of Astro Boy flying

The illusion of movement was then transferred to the merchandising practices of Meiji Seika, where stickers were placed as extras in their chocolate cylinders. In these stickers, according to Steinberg’s essay, we still see the dynamic motion of Astro Boy as seen in the animated series, where “flight” was symbolized in some stickers by depicting Astro Boy with “speed lines” drawn behind him. These stickers became dynamic motions in themselves, able to “move around” and be put on a variety of surfaces for children. These surfaces included places like notebooks, shoes, and even faces. As Steinberg described the stickers, “the image is dynamic even in its very stillness” (page 66). Astro Boy now wasn’t just in the animations alone. It was now in our world, thanks to the media system of merchandising goods. And this media system wouldn’t be as developed if not for the existence of the animation media system, where movement is illustrated with the least use of materials. As Steinberg puts it, it is “graphically immobile dynamism” (page76).

“Astro Boy” is illustrative of a successful system of media systems in the fluidity and dynamic symbols of movement through its different mediums. Through animation and manga, as well as merchandising, we find Astro Boy has consistently held a way of illustrating movement. This movement has held Astro Boy in perpetual fluidity through different systems that have led to its success.

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Animals and Robots: The Difference is Life

In early Japanese anime, humans have been portrayed as possessing absolute power and control. Evidence from Momotaro’s Sea Eagles and Astro Boy suggest that humans reign atop this fabricated hierarchy between the humans themselves and animals and robots. Being the pinnacle of evolution, humans have been conditioned towards a state of mind that revolves around human sovereignty over lesser beings. In this case, they seek out control over animals and robots, commanding them to perform everyday tasks that can easily be done by humans themselves. While this total control can lead to either complete respect or total disapproval, humans still thwart their dominance over the weak. The former is evident in Momotaro’s Sea Eagles in which Momotaro is able to command his animal army while retaining complete respect from his subordinates. The latter is then evident in Astro Boy in which humans have forced robots to take on impossible tasks such as emulating a biologically developed human.

Momotaro is giving his troops the location of the demons.

Beginning with Momotaro’s Sea Eagles, Momotaro himself is seen directly communicating and interacting with the animals aboard his vessel. Even though he is the general spouting orders to his animal troops, the crew respects him fully. Momotaro can easily join his crew in the attack on the demons, but they instead value his supremacy and would die for his protection, so the crew departs leaving Momotaro behind to keep watch on the ship. This interaction between human and animals shows a distinct hierarchy in which the subordinates greatly revere their master. Momotaro’s position aboard the ship is made evidence through specific scenes which distinctly set him apart from the rest of the crew. The screen tends to focus on Momotaro when he is speaking to his crew. Many of these shots contain only Momotaro which means that no other is on the same level as him. Momotaro’s position earns him the right to be featured in his own solo shots. The character design of Momotaro is also an indication of his position as the leader. The animals appear to be drawn smaller than Momotaro because the leader needs to be the biggest so that he stands out from the crowd. Very few distinctions are made between each animal’s character designs, but Momotaro is highly decorated which reflects his high status. Despite this hierarchy, the animals still remain loyal to Momotaro, and the crew is seen celebrating together at the end of the film.

Get out of my house! You’re not a real boy!

Astro Boy on the other hand demeans the position of robots. Initially the robots were revered as ingenious creations which facilitate human life, but over time their positions began to decline rapidly. As seen in the first episode of Astro Boy, the creation of Astro Boy left Dr. Boynton speechless and in awe at his creation. He loved this new robot with all his heart, but this love soon became resentment after Dr. Boynton discovered that Astro Boy is unable to age like a normal human boy. Dr. Boynton’s total control over Astro Boy soon became corrupted, and this resulted in the Dr. Boynton throwing Astro Boy away. The relationship between humans and robots is solely material, as made evident in the first episode. Astro Boy then meets up with other discarded robots who have met the same fate that he has. The cause for this lack of care appears to be the fact that robots may seem to be alive, but they are essentially inanimate. They cannot share the same relationships as animals because they are not living under the same context.

The Well-Oiled Machine versus Robots’ Rights

Captain Momotaro looks over his soldiers

In Momotaro’s Sea Eagle, there is an interesting relationship between Momotaro, the only human we see, the animals he commands and the machines they use.  He is clearly the leader, staying on the ship and giving orders, but also part of a sort of hierarchy in which each animal has its own rank and duties on the ship.

Dog and Monkey salute Bird

For example, the birds are saluted by the dogs and monkeys, who seem to be roughly the same rank but with differing skills and duties.  Each animal excels at its particular task.  The monkeys are far more agile and seem to be more intelligent than the dogs as well.  The monkey can be seen hopping among the planes as he helps a young bird find its mother.

Monkey hops from plane to plane, helping a young bird find its mother

This smoothly running hierarchy which consists in the division of labor among the animals is reminiscent of the phrase “a well-oiled machine.”  Each part has a specific task and as long as it does its “job,” so to speak, the whole will succeed in its purpose.

The machines themselves are used equally smoothly; the animals have an intimate control over them, as if they are parts of their own body or toys that they have grown up with.  By contrast, the “devils” who inhabit the island, (who are clearly Americans,) seem to have little hierarchy or control over their technology.  During the attack, they stumble and fall about uncontrollably.

The “Devils” fall about, failing to mount any kind of defense

The lack of a hierarchy mixed with a lack of understanding and control over the machinery is extremely apparent in the beginning moments of the attack.  The “devils” cannot even master their escape craft, and fall into the ocean.  As such, the battle is easily won by the Japanese hierarchical “machine” and its actual machines.

The “Devils” can’t even master the escape craft

In the first episode of Astroboy, the situation is very different.  Robots are first seen as a sort of mix of pet and slave.  While this is another sort of hierarchy, it differs from the idea of talent-driven division in Momotaro’s Sea Eagle.

Astroboy starts as simple property, able to be sold by contract.

But Astroboy is clearly more than just a slave or pet, as he soon demonstrates first by refusing to “kill” the robot he was forced to fight during a circus show, then by saving the life of the circus leader when the tent catches fire.  We can see in the image below that Astroboy was not simply fulfilling his duty as property and robot, but as an intelligent, thinking, caring being, who is moved to ensure the safety of other intelligent beings.

Astroboy appears to show genuine concern for his owner, despite having been treated badly by the very same person.

Upon seeing the actions of Astroboy and other robots, basic “human” rights are extended to include them.  The lines between human and machine are blurred quite differently in this film – since each is taken to represent an equal mind.

The circus director pushes down some curious animal at his hospital bedside

Almost no animals are seen, but we only get a glimpse of how the circus leader treats them when he pushes down what appears to be a curious pig.  I take it that this is meant to show how such a person treats all beings, animal or robot as inferior.  Since he is cast as the villain, I think it is meant to illustrate that this is the wrong viewpoint, and that treated any being as equal is the better approach.

Humans, Animals, and Machines: Elevating to Equality

The relationship between humans and non-humans, animals and machines, plays a big role in Momotato’s Sea Eagles and Astro Boy.  The initial relationship in both is the use of animals and machines to replace humans in roles of “low skill.”  Humans serve as leaders or creators of the non-humans, putting them on a higher status level.  A final element of  the relationship between humans with animals and machines is the elevation of non-humans to human status after being heroes.

 

The animals take orders from their master as they prepare for war.

One recognizable feature in these movies is the use of animals and machines as replacements for people of low education and low skill.  As in real life, machines are being used as substitutes for people of low ability.  As technology gets better humans become more replaceable. Astro Boy is built by Dr. Tenma to replace his own son, Tobio, after a fatal car crash.  Other robots in the movie are used as circus employees.  These robots are mistreated and left in a closet alone.  This shows a benefit of using animals or technology instead of using human labor.  The machines can be mistreated more so than a human can without rebelling.  In Momotaro’s Sea Eagles, the animals serve as soldiers.  This keeps humans out of danger, making animal lives seem less important.

 

Circus Robots: Underprivileged, but still happy.

Also, similar to real life, skilled people can use all resources to their advantage.  Momotaro serves as commander of the animal army, while Dr. Tenma is the creator of Astro Boy and a human runs the circus.  This show that humans are still in control and gives them a higher level of individual importance.  The skilled people can manipulate the animals and machines to get what they want.  Momotaro never faces any danger because he commands from far away while the animals jump on torpedos and face gun fire to serve their country.  Technology plays a big role in Momotaro’s Sea Eagles because the technology fighter jets and guns are integral to the success off the attack on Demon Island.

 

Astro Boy proving his worth to the humans.

Despite being mistreated and thrust into the face of danger by humans, the animals and machines in Momotaro’s Sea Eagles and Astro Boy play become brave heroes.  By proving their worth to humans, both the animals and robots get elevated to a higher status.  This relationship is true in real life where multiple successes by a person can lead to promotion in the workplace.  In Momotaro’s Sea Eagles the animals return the screen zooms in on a sign that says, “Japan’s Best” and the animals celebrate their victory.  The robots receive an even bigger elevation of status after they save humans from an explosion and fire at the circus.  Astro Boy and other robot slaves of the circus gain individual freedom.  This elevates them to the same level as humans.

 

Once expendable, the animal soldiers are now Japan’s Best.

Both of these films use the relationship between humans, animals, and technology to show very real trends in life.  Humans are using substitutes to other lower ability humans in real life.  High ability humans are the people who benefit the most from this substitution.  However, the films leave a good message for everyone; with hard work and sacrifice, everyone can become equal.

Amplifier of Human Hearts: Resonance in Momotaro’s Sea Eagle and The Birth of Astro Boy

A common relationship among humans, animals, and machines is depicted in both Momotaro’s Sea Eagle and The Birth of Astro Boy. Specifically, I will like to acknowledge the relationship between humans or animals and machines in Momotaro’s Sea Eagle and the relationship between humans and machines in The Birth of Astro Boy. Through the plot development of both stories, we observe the common relationship of how machines represent and amplify the ideologies of their users or creators, resonating with them in both anime productions. This relationship occurs through the internal transformation of the machines and results in the conversion from a person-to-tool relationship into a person-to-person relationship.

Shot 1: Close-Up Still Shot of Torpedo Bomber

To begin my analysis, I point to the above screenshot at the beginning scenes of Momotaro’s Sea Eagle. The close-up shot magnifies the weight of the machine, especially taken at an angle from which one person looks above from below. The looming clouds lurking in the background adds further tension to the already present stillness of the atmosphere. The different shades of gray not only depict realism, but also add to the coldness of the lifeless aircraft. However, as the animals, or perhaps arguably humans for their great degree of personification, start preparing, controlling, and riding these aircrafts, their depicted realism and coldness fade away in the scenes of playfulness, transforming into liveliness and friendliness.

Shot 2: Medium Still Shot of Astro Boy’s Birth

Similarly, when observing shot two from The Birth of Astro Boy, I notice how the multiple circular lines of light shadings at each major joint exemplifies the machine-ness of Astro Boy. The glowing parts of his hair and clothing all serve to signify the metallic element to his construction as the glows represent the reflection of light from a metallic surface. Furthermore, the electrical cords attached to him replace the organic singular umbilical cord. Instead of growing as a fetus, Astro Boy represents already a fully grown boy. However, through the initial love of his father, the education he receives, and the interaction with different robots and people, Astro Boy finally acquires human qualities.

As a science fiction, The Birth of Astro Boy captivates the hearts of his audience not only through the intentional use of familiar objects as implemented by the author, but also through Astro Boy’s personal development. Instead of functioning simply as a tool for circuit performance, Astro Boy learns intellectually as a regular child, makes additional robot friends at the circus, and also saves people. Such developments and characteristics can be viewed as a manifestation of love from his father initially, eventually starting a wave for human rights for robots. Likewise, through the propagandizing nature of Momotaro’s Sea Eagle, the playful and friendly scenes of the greatly personified animals establish a transformation of relationships, going from person-to-machine to person-to-person or animal-to-person.

As the audiences, the animals, the people, and the robots become acquainted with the aircrafts and Astro Boy, a personal relationship arises. The aircrafts and Astro Boy are no longer described as useful or cold, typical adjectives associated with tools, but are rather described as cute and warm, adjectives associated with living beings. Hence, through this transformation of relationships, we see how tools and machines function as an amplifier of the human heart, representing our personal qualities and eventually acquiring them themselves.

Animals and Machines Finding Their Place in the Human World

The relationship between humans and animals is well-established in Momotaro’s Sea Eagle; Momotaro, the human, is clearly in charge of all the animal soldiers but the animals do not show resentment and happily perform their duties. However the relationship between humans and machines is unstable in Astro Boy and a main aspect of the film is Astro Boy, a machine, figuring out his place in a world dominated by humans.

Momotaro’s Sea Eagle shows a stable relationship between humans and animals and the relationship never comes under pressure throughout the film. The animals under Momotaro’s jurisdiction are most likely honored to serve under the great Momotaro. In return for their respect, Momotaro does not abuse his authority. He expects them to perform a successful attack on Demon Island, and the animal soldiers do not disappoint.

In Astro Boy, the relationship between humans and machines is strained and not well-established. Humans like the robot circus owner clearly believe that robots are inferior and that they are just property that he can use for his show and make money. Initially Dr. Tenma treats Astro Boy like he would have his human son, but when he realizes that Astro Boy could not grow like a human, this difference disturbed the professor enough so that he rejects the robot boy completely and sells him off. However, even with these people who thought robots were just property and were not at the level of humans, there were people who thought differently, like Dr. Ochanomizu who wanted to have Astro Boy freed from the circus. When he tries to convince the crowd at the robot circus that the robots are being treated cruelly, the audience is not affected at all and just sees Dr. Ochanomizu as an annoyance and disruption to the show. It appears as if people like Professor Ochanomizu are a minority, but at the end of the film, the government passes the Robot Human Rights, which grants robots the same rights as humans, and Dr. Ochanomizu claims that people all over the world wanted it, showing that the humans who cared about robots as equals were not an insignificant minority.

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Robots overjoyed with their new rights

The solid relationship between Momotaro and his animal soldiers allows Momotaro’s army to perform like a well-oiled machine with everyone knowing their place and performing their expected actions proficiently. Not only that, but they also seem to be happy and satisfied with their roles; therefore the relationship between humans and animals in Momotaro’s Sea Eagle will probably not be changing. In Astro Boy, it is apparent that many of the robots are unhappy especially if they have abusive owners, but the viewers see the robots’ joy when the government announces the new law that grants them equal rights. However, even with this new law, there are most likely people who do not agree, like the robot circus owner, and it is quite possible that they cause problems in the future.  The relationship between humans and machines is not yet stable, but it is working progressively.

Humans, Animals, and Technology: A Single Living Entity

In the animated works titled Momotarō’s Sea Eagles and Astro Boy, technology is showcased as a pro-life entity that organically functions alongside humanity and animals alike. For example, in Seo Mitsuyo’s Momotarō’s Sea Eagles film, stark military machinery is enlivened when utilized and managed by animal characters that note, are essentially human since they sport human garb and demonstrate organizational capability.  And so prior to animal manipulation, the warplanes and such in the Momotarō film at hand are static and darkly colored. In effect, technology is initially unapproachable and threatening in the film.

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Momotarō’s destructive warplane.

Further into the film though, animal activity around the warplanes subdues their violent nature. Specifically, energetic prancing, sliding, and mounting into them and around them transform the warplanes into approachable, familiar objects. Also, the high degree of physical contact the animals impart onto the warplanes generates a sense of organic symbiosis that states life (the animals) and technology are a single functioning entity. Likewise, technology in the form of robots in the Astro Boy animated series created by Tezuka Productions, exists and functions alongside humans. Accordingly, the robots are very human in design. For instance, their social mannerisms and physical capabilities are fairly indistinguishable from that of humans. That is to say, both entities are equally animated, they both speak, and willfully act. In effect, a sympathetic attitude indicative of social equality is established and maintained towards technology in Astro Boy. That is to say, the robots in the series like their human counterparts are victims before other humans and their own kind. In addition, robots, Atom specially, are genuinely capable of emotion. Just like humans, they grieve, fear, and rejoice.

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The melancholy of Atom.

Overall, these personifications shine a positive light on technology.  It renders it harmless and highly relatable, a much needed message in Japan after World War 2. All in all, technology is presented as a friendly effective tool in both Momotarō and Astro Boy that mostly preserves life. Note that this theme is a direct reference to the understandable technological scare present in Japan after World War 2. Its animated manifestation for example, a beaming Atom with encouragingly uplifted hands, gently advocates closure from any technological ill sentiment WW2’s destructive events could have provoked.

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Atom, a friendly advocate of technology.

One final note, both films to some degree present technological violence. For example, Tobio in Astro Boy passes away due to a technological malfunction on the road and the warplanes in the Momotarō’s Sea Eagles film cause great material destruction on Demon Island. It is highly commendable of both animations to define technology in such an objective manner but, this given stance proves to be short-lived since the single anti-technology representations in each film are heavily overwritten by many pro-technology messages. Ultimately, “Technology is a pro-life tool” is the main message communicated by the human-animal-technology dynamics respectively found in the animations of Momotarō’s Sea Eagles and Astro Boy.